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// Copyright (c) 2015-2020 The Bitcoin Core developers
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// Distributed under the MIT software license, see the accompanying
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// file COPYING or http://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php.
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#include <consensus/merkle.h>
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#include <hash.h>
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/*     WARNING! If you're reading this because you're learning about crypto
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       and/or designing a new system that will use merkle trees, keep in mind
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       that the following merkle tree algorithm has a serious flaw related to
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       duplicate txids, resulting in a vulnerability (CVE-2012-2459).
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       The reason is that if the number of hashes in the list at a given level
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       is odd, the last one is duplicated before computing the next level (which
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       is unusual in Merkle trees). This results in certain sequences of
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       transactions leading to the same merkle root. For example, these two
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       trees:
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                    A               A
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                  /  \            /   \
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                B     C         B       C
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               / \    |        / \     / \
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              D   E   F       D   E   F   F
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             / \ / \ / \     / \ / \ / \ / \
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             1 2 3 4 5 6     1 2 3 4 5 6 5 6
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       for transaction lists [1,2,3,4,5,6] and [1,2,3,4,5,6,5,6] (where 5 and
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       6 are repeated) result in the same root hash A (because the hash of both
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       of (F) and (F,F) is C).
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       The vulnerability results from being able to send a block with such a
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       transaction list, with the same merkle root, and the same block hash as
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       the original without duplication, resulting in failed validation. If the
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       receiving node proceeds to mark that block as permanently invalid
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       however, it will fail to accept further unmodified (and thus potentially
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       valid) versions of the same block. We defend against this by detecting
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       the case where we would hash two identical hashes at the end of the list
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       together, and treating that identically to the block having an invalid
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       merkle root. Assuming no double-SHA256 collisions, this will detect all
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       known ways of changing the transactions without affecting the merkle
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       root.
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*/
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uint256 ComputeMerkleRoot(std::vector<uint256> hashes, bool* mutated) {
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    bool mutation = false;
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    while (hashes.size() > 1) {
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        if (mutated) {
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            for (size_t pos = 0; pos + 1 < hashes.size(); pos += 2) {
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                if (hashes[pos] == hashes[pos + 1]) mutation = true;
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            }
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        }
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        if (hashes.size() & 1) {
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            hashes.push_back(hashes.back());
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        }
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        SHA256D64(hashes[0].begin(), hashes[0].begin(), hashes.size() / 2);
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        hashes.resize(hashes.size() / 2);
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    }
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    if (mutated) *mutated = mutation;
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    if (hashes.size() == 0) return uint256();
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    return hashes[0];
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}
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uint256 BlockMerkleRoot(const CBlock& block, bool* mutated)
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{
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    std::vector<uint256> leaves;
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    leaves.resize(block.vtx.size());
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    for (size_t s = 0; s < block.vtx.size(); s++) {
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        leaves[s] = block.vtx[s]->GetHash();
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    }
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    return ComputeMerkleRoot(std::move(leaves), mutated);
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}
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uint256 BlockWitnessMerkleRoot(const CBlock& block, bool* mutated)
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{
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    std::vector<uint256> leaves;
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    leaves.resize(block.vtx.size());
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    leaves[0].SetNull(); // The witness hash of the coinbase is 0.
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    for (size_t s = 1; s < block.vtx.size(); s++) {
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        leaves[s] = block.vtx[s]->GetWitnessHash();
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    }
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    return ComputeMerkleRoot(std::move(leaves), mutated);
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}
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